The environment, soil qualities, biotic conditions, and cultural practices all have an impact on rice growth and output. Rainfall and water, temperature, photoperiod, solar radiation, and, in some cases, tropical storms are all environmental influences. Rice may be grown in a variety of conditions, depending on the availability of water. Rice does not thrive in a wet environment, but it can survive and develop here, as well as survive flooding.
Rice can be planted in two ways: directly seeded or transplanted.
Direct seeding of Rice is the process of starting a rice crop from seeds sowed in the field rather than seedlings transplanted from a nursery. Direct seeded plants take less labor and mature more quickly than transplanted plants. Plants are not subjected to stress in this procedure, such as being plucked from the soil and having to re-establish fine rootlets. Weeds, on the other hand, pose a greater threat.
Direct seeding can be done in two ways, depending on the land preparation method used:
- Dry direct seeding, which is most commonly used in rain fed and deep-water habitats. Farmers sow seed onto a dry soil surface, then plough or harrow the seed into the soil.
- Wet direct sowing; in wet fields, direct seeding can be done with a drum seeder or by spreading seeds into the muck.
In Asia, rice transplanting is the most common and comprehensive method of crop establishment. 15 to 40 days after seeding, rice seedlings cultivated in a nursery are removed and replanted into puddled and leveled fields. Rice seedlings can be transplanted either manually or mechanically. This is done to increase yields while reducing weeding.
- Manual transplanting does not necessitate the purchase of expensive machines and is best suited to labor-scarce areas and small rice fields. In fields with less-than-ideal leveling and variable water levels, manual transplanting is possible. Wet, dry, or modified mat nurseries are used to nurture seedlings. Healthy and strong seedlings will result from proper nursery care.
- Machine transplanting entails a machine placing immature rice plants into puddled soil. Machine transplanting is quick and efficient, requires less labor, and ensures timely planting, all while lowering stress, work load, and health concerns. Machine transplanting improves regular spacing, plant density, and speedier seedling recovery.
The following factors should be considered when selecting an appropriate planting method: location, soil type, rice environment, and input and labor availability. When it comes to planting a crop in the field, knowing when to plant is vital. Planting into a well-prepared seedbed at the right time will result in a fast-growing, uniform crop with higher yields and improved resistance to weeds and other pests.